Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. See the editorial for more information....

The questions in this exercise can all be solved using some combination of the following approaches:

a) There is constant voltage throughout any conductor.

b) Ohm's law can be applied to any part of a circuit.

c) Apply the loop rule.

d) Apply the junction rule.

In each case, discuss the question, decide what you think is the right answer, and then try the experiment.

1. A wire is added in parallel with one bulb.

Which reasoning is correct?

• Each bulb still has 1.2 V across it, so both bulbs are still lit up.

• All parts of a wire are at the same voltage, and there is now a wire connection from one side of the right-hand bulb to the other. The right-hand bulb has no voltage difference across it, so it goes out.

2. The series circuit is changed as shown.

Which reasoning is correct?

• Each bulb now has its sides connected to the two terminals of the battery, so each now has 2.4 V across it instead of 1.2 V. They get brighter.

• Just as in the original circuit, the current goes through one bulb, then the other. It's just that now the current goes in a figure-8 pattern. The bulbs glow the same as before.

3. A wire is added as shown to the original circuit.

What is wrong with the following reasoning?

The top right bulb will go out, because its two sides are now connected with wire, so there will be no voltage difference across it. The other three bulbs will not be affected.

4. A wire is added as shown to the original circuit.

What is wrong with the following reasoning?

The current flows out of the right side of the battery. When it hits the first junction, some of it will go left and some will keep going up The part that goes up lights the top right bulb. The part that turns left then follows the path of least resistance, going through the new wire instead of the bottom bulb. The top bulb stays lit, the bottom one goes out, and others stay the same.

5. What happens when one bulb is unscrewed, leaving an air gap?

Last Update: 2009-06-21